Professor Mary Jensen


Paper Guidelines

General Rules

1.  Your paper should represent your own interpretation of what you have read and experienced. It should not be simply a paraphrasing of others' ideas and interpretations. (Check definition of "plagiarism" in the college catalogue.)

2.  Organize your paper in major sections with introductory and concluding paragraphs. Use from two to three heading levels to label your sections:

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

Flush Left Underlined Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading

Indented, underlined, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

The text continues in a new paragraph following the center or flush side headings. (See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [4th ed., 1994, p. 242] for additional heading levels.)

3. When discussing research that has been completed, it is customary to use the past tense.

Example: In her study, Fein (1987) investigated the effects of maternal smoking on infants. She found that . . .

4. Whenever possible, use primary sources, not secondary sources, for research or ideas cited.

APA Text Citation Rules

1.  In general, when discussing (i.e., not a direct quote) an idea or finding from any recoverable source, you may refer to the author by name followed by the date of the source in parentheses:

Example: In the Weikart (1986) study, . . . Or, you may simply cite the author name and date after the text as follows: Example: Several studies (Kontos, 1988; Patterson & Brown, 1985; Perlmutter, Pellegrini, & Stevens, 1987) have shown . . .

2. Once you have cited a publication date in a paragraph, you need not cite it again in that paragraph. But you must cite the author and date again if you refer to the publication elsewhere in the paper.

3. Personal communications, such as interviews, memos, and telephone conversations, are only cited in the text and are not included in the reference list. This citation can have either of two forms:

Examples: L. G. Katz (personal communication, April 18, 1998) or (L. G. Katz, personal communication, April 18, 1998)

4. Your paper should seldom include quotes (i.e., rule of thumb = less than three). When quoting, you also have two choices for citations:

A. Refer to the author prior to the quote. Example: Weikart (1986) states, " . . . " (p. 264).

B. Or, cite the author following the quote.

Example: One author concludes: " . . . " (Weikart, 1986, p. 264). For a direct quote, you cite the page number(s) as well as the publication date.

APA Reference List Rules

The form of your references should correspond to the following examples--arranged alphabetically by author or by title of the source if no author exists. (In the latter case, the publication date appears after the title.)

1.  Book Charlesworth, R. (1996). Understanding child development: For adults who work with young children (4th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, Inc.
2. Article in an Edited Book Case, R. (1988). The whole child: Toward an integrated view of young children's cognitive, social and emotional development. In A. D. Pellegrini (Ed.), Psychological bases for early education (pp. 155-184). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
3. Journal Seefeldt, C. (1995). Ready to learn! But what? Contemporary Education, 66, 134-138.
4. Magazine Article Ward, C. D. (1996, March). Adult intervention: Appropriate strategies for enriching the quality of children's play. Young Children, pp. 20-25.
5. Monograph Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., & Snipper, A. (1982). Lasting effects of early childhood education. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47 (1-2, Serial No. 194).
6. ERIC Document Sleator, E. K. (1986). Infectious diseases in day care. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 269 157)
7. Government Document Office of Human Development Services. (1985). available from the Day care: Serving preschool children (DHHS Government Printing Publication No. OHDS 84-31057). Washington, DC: Office U. S. Government Printing Office.
8. Newspaper Article Zeigler, M. (1988, February 21). "Spite calls" are misusing abuse hotline. Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, p. 2B.

For further information and additional examples, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, fourth edition, 1994. (Available in the library or in the bookstore.)

Common Writing Errors

1. Make sure you select the correct words:

Too to or two

A.  "too" -- means "also" or "extremely" or is used for emphasis
B.  "to" -- means "going towards"
C.  "two" -- means a number between one and three

Affect or effect

A. Verbs: "affect" -- means "to influence" or "to stir emotions"

(Example: Tom Cruise's media image affects movie ratings.) "effect" -- means "to produce a result" or "to bring about" (Example: Local advocates effected an increase in day care funding.)

B. Nouns "affect" -- means "an emotional state"

(Example: Her lack of affect was surprising.") "effect" -- means "result" (Example: The effect of our advocacy efforts was seldom immediate.)

2.  Make sure you use the correct abbreviation

A. "e.g.,"-used when your example(s) is(are) within a wider range of possibilities. B. "i.e.," - used when your example(s) is(are) the only one(s); the whole universe of relevant examples is covered.

3.  Use the correct form.

"Would have" or "could have" is correct, not "would of" or "could of." 4.  Use the correct spelling
  A.  Develop contains only two "e's"
B.  Separate contains only two "e's"
C.  Definite contains two "i's", but no "a's".
D.  Child-sized is an adjective, not a noun ("child size")
    5.  An Illiterate Interlude (author unknown)
      A. Don't use no double negatives.

      B. Make each pronoun agree with their antecedent.

      C. When dangling, watch your participles.

      D. About them sentences fragments.

      E. Verbs has to agree with their subjects.

      F. Just between you and I, case is important, too.

      G. Don't write run-on sentences they are difficult to read.

      H. Don't use commas, that aren't needed.

      I. Its important to use your apostrophe's correctly.

      J. Avoid using a preposition to end a sentence with.

      K. Proofread your writing to see if any words left out.

      L. Correct spelingg is essential.